By Norine G. Johnson, Michael C. Roberts, and Judith Worell (Editors) American Psychological Association, 1999 Review by Marilyn Graves, Ph.D. on Jan 16th 2003
This tome appears to be more of a
textbook than a casual read. It has sixteen chapters, all written by different
people and varies widely in writing style and general accessibility.
The introductory statements are
written by Dr. Dorothy Cantor, then president of the American Psychological Association
and writer of other more interesting works of her own. She explains that this
is a compilation of 32 contributors who formed a task force to study the topic
of adolescent girls. Each chapter addresses a sub area in the general topic of
adolescent girlhood. For example, Chapter 3 is a review of research regarding
competence and self-esteem in adolescent girls. Many of the studies are of a
survey or self-report format. A few are longitudinal studies such as the
Michigan Study of Adolescent Life Transitions (pg. 56).
The general format of most chapters
is to present research and at the end present some general conclusions. This is
a typical one: “gendered self-concepts and self-esteem vary across domains and
ethnic groups . . . it is not the case that females, in general, are less
confident of their abilities than males. Nor is it the case that females, in
general, have less self-esteem than males.” The conclusions in this chapter
continue with, “girls are more negatively affected by failure experiences and
by anticipated failures than are boys.” (p. 77).
The Michigan study (p. 57) is
perhaps the most interesting one. Begun in 1982 and sampling 3,000 sixth
graders in twelve school districts in Michigan, it included 2,000 respondents
now in early adulthood who were still a part of the study as of the book
publication date of 1999. One of the conclusions of the study was that self-
rating by girls tends to predict their occupational choices. They tended to
rate themselves higher in English and social areas and thus tended to gravitate
to those areas of employment. Not surprising from what we generally hear in
casual conversations around the water cooler but here is documentation of it.
In Chapter 4, the writer addresses what contributes
to resilience from developing an eating disorder. The writer suggests that
though the prospects of developing an eating disorder of diagnosable
proportions is small, “ a large majority undertake diets and suffer from
subclinical eating concerns, body dissatisfaction, and what has been termed ‘a
normal discontent’ ” (p. 101). The writer then assesses risk for co-existing
disorders like depression.
There is a chapter on girls of
color (Chapter 7). It points out difficulties for ethnic minority girls in this
age group. It assesses barriers to development of positive identity because of
“sexism, racism, and classism” and suggests there is a lack of research in this
area (p. 167). Other topics in the book address areas like gender influences,
friendships, sexuality, school experiences, dating, and health care.
A part of the book is a series of
excerpts from a survey proposing to find out about the “state of the hearts of
adolescent girls” (p. 431). Its intent was to stimulate dialogue.
The appendix lists some actual
questions and answers. For example, “why is popularity so important to most
girls?” (p. 416) or “why do all the cute guys date sluts?” (p. 423) are two questions
girls asked. The researchers answer to this later one involves an explanation
about teenage prostitution. This is probably wide of the margin as to what the
fourteen year old meant by her question. Perhaps she just meant to ask why boys
like slutty girls. This makes one wonder how well the researchers actually
understand the minds of the age group they are studying.
In short, the study of adolescent
girls is a hot and sometimes controversial area of interest these days. This
textbook, which one might see in a developmental psychology class, is not user
friendly for the general reader. While the recounting of past research with the
extensive references at the end of each section may just the ticket if one is
looking for something specific, it is not worth it poking around in the muck
looking for occasional jewels. Certainly some of the chapters are well-written
but others are tedious.
Marilyn Graves, Ph.D. is a clinical psychologist in
private practice in Tennessee working with children, adolescents and adults.
She is also the occasional writer of parenting articles and book reviews.